VIRGIN FOREST OF THRANSCARPTHIA. VYHORIAT-HUTYNSKYI MASSIF. DESCRIPTION BY OROGRAPHIC UNITS
Hamor F., Dovhanych Ya., Pokynchereda V., Sukharyuk D., Bundzyak Yo., Berkela Yu., Voloshchuk M., Hodovanets В., Kabal M.
It is located within the Shayany sub-area of the Vyhoriat-Hutynskyi physical-geographic area of the Volcanic Carpathians region.
The northern boundary of the massif is made up by the Tysa river valley, and the southern one – by the Ukrainian-Romanian border.
In terms of orography the massif is represented by low-mountain range that goes from the northwest to the southeast and is complicated by stark volcano and batholiths. The highest summits are Frasyn Mt. (826 m), Syroky Mt. (811 m) and Bahno Mt (602m).
Tectonically the massif is located within the Vyhorlat-Hutyn volcanic range of the Transcarpathian depression. Volcanic developments belong to the late Miocene-early Pliocene. Volcanic thickness is made of andesite-basalts and andesites, by their tufts and tuff-breccias.
The massif is characterized by the steep-sloped low-mountain landscape on volcanic rocks with beech-oak and beech forests dominating.
The massif lies within the Hutyn low-mountain district of the brownsoil zone of the Transcarpathian brownsoil province. The topsoil is represented by acid brownsoils (Distric Cambisols) on effusive rocks. The soils are characterized by high acidity (pH 4.0), a powerful profile (120-160 cm), relatively low content of humus (from 4-5% in upper horizons to 1% in the front ones), with higher content of amphoteric bases (degree of saturation about 50%).
Climate conditions change from warm to mild-warm. Up to 500 m.a.s.l. mean temperatures constitute about +18°C in July, and in January – -3°C. The higher the altitude is, mean temperatures change to 2-3°C. Annual amount of precipitation elevates from 450 to 600 mm/year, the sum of active temperatures changes with the altitude from 2800 to 2000°.
Southern slopes of the massif are covered with oak (Quercetum) and hornbeam (Carpinetum) forest phytocoenoses, and on higher levels – with beech forests (Fagetum). In terms of flora this massif is characterized by a number of south-European and mediterranian species available on the southern slopes: Tilia tomentosa, Quercus cem’s, Q. dalechampii, Q. pubescens, Fraxinus omus, Sorbus torminalis.
In the underbrush occur Stephylaea pinnate, Comus mas, LJgustrum vulgare etc. The following species area characteristic for the herbaceous layer of the massif: Dianthus compactus, Euphorbia carpatica, Mb/a declinate, Carex transsylvanicum etc.
General characteristic of virgin forests
Insignificant virgin forest sites area found in the massif, which belong to the broadleaved forest belt (Fig. 26). Beech (Fagus sylvatica) is dominating; Acer pseudoplatanus, Acer platanoides, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus glabra, Quercus robur, Populus tremula are sporadically distributed here.
They belong to the managed forests where logging is envisaged.
Characteristic of cluster
1. Code in tie database: ХУ.ВИ.1. Location: Vyshkovo forestry of the Khust SFE. Area: 154,4 ha. Altitude range: 600-900 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-eastern. Mean slope gradient: 25°. Pure forests of Fagus sylvatica. Protection status: protective forests.
Source: Hamor F., Dovhanych Ya., Pokynchereda V., Sukharyuk D., Bundzyak Yo., Berkela Yu., Voloshchuk M., Hodovanets В., Kabal M. Virgin forests of Transcarpathia. Inventory and management. – Rakhiv, 2008. – 86 p.