NATURAL AND RESOURCE POTENTIAL OF TRANSCARPATHIA
The climate of Transcarpathia is moderately continental with the sufficient and surplus moistening, usteady spring, not very hot summer, warm autumn and mild winter. We should mark that climate of Transcarpathia is the most favourable by the amount of comfort days for active rest in the Ukrainian Carpathians.
In preagrarian period the territory of the region was almost fully afforested (over 90% of land), but after the intensive felling of the forests in the post-war period (especially in 1949-1960s) the amount of the forests was constantly diminishing. According to the State Administration of Forestry the area of forest fund of the region makes 694 thousand that is 51%.
Agricultural lands make 37,1% of the territory of the region. They are divided according to their purpose into plough-land, pastures, hayfields, long-term planting, fallows.
Fuel and energy potential
Fuel and energy potential of Transcarpathia is insignificant in the part of own traditional sources (oil, gas, coal and others). Brown coal deposits are discovered with the general supplies of about 80 million tons.
Oil and gas deposits are explored only partly. From the explored gas deposits the one in Ruski Komarivtsi is exploited, it was put into operation in spring of 2003 with the project power of 1,5 million m3 a month and the less operating deposits are the ones in Korolyovo and Stanovo. On the whole presently about 9 mln.m3 of gas are obtained in the region, that makes about 1,5%* in the balance of its consumption.
Geothermal energy occupies the second place among restoration sources (after hydroenergetics) in the world practice. It is also the second one in Transcarpathia for its importance. We already have the perspective for use explored deposits with the known descriptions on resource, temperature and quality of water discharge on the output of mining holes (these are in Berehovo, Kosyno, Zaluzhya, Tereblya, Velyatyn, Palad, Velyka Baktyan, Uzhhorod).
The solar power engineering also has prospects of development in Transcarpathia. Terms for sun radiation energy use are especially favourable in the low-level area. The amount of sun radiance in the Carpathian lowlands makes 2025 hours a year on the average which is almost half of the maximum possible (4450 hours).
Mineral raw material potential of Transcarpathia is unique. 217 deposits including 30 various minerals were explored in the region: 2 deposits of precious metals (gold, silver), 3 − of coloured metals (lead, zinc), 4 − of mercury, 4 − of gas and the same quantity of coal, 1 − of mining raw material (bentonite clay, kaolins) and of mining and chemical raw material (salt). 3 − of zeolite, and also a great number of deposits of various build materials.
There are over 360 sources of mineral waters different by their chemical composition and healthful properties, quite a bit of usage perspective sources of hot springs with different degree of mineralization in Transcarpathia. The region has the unique deposits of zeolites in Ukraine and their stocks are one of the largest in the world. Transcarpathia is not accidentally named the Silver land.
Geologists opened gold and silver metals in Muzhiiv Gold and Polymetallic Deposit (Berehovo district) and in “Saulyak” Gold and Mine Deposit (Rakhiv district).
Rare metals, namely mercury and alumstone (from which alumina and metallic aluminium are got) are discovered in 4 deposits of cinnabar on mercury (near the villages of Dubrynychi and Turya Bystra in Perechyn district, the village of Vyshkovo in Khust district) and in 2 deposits of alumstone ore (Berehovo and Bihan). All of these deposits are not operating.
Source: Magazine “Transcarpathia” № 2 summer/autumn 2010