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Hamor F., Dovhanych Ya., Pokynchereda V., Sukharyuk D., Bundzyak Yo., Berkela Yu., Voloshchuk M., Hodovanets В., Kabal M.

Physical geographic properties

The massif is located within the Pre-Watershed Horhany area of the Watershed-Verkhovyna region.

It lies in the upper part of the Tereblya, Teresva and Black Tysa river basins. Its northern boundary goes along the main watershed between the Dnister and Tysa rivers, and the southern one – along valleys of the rivers Mokryanka, Burustyanka, Turbat and Black Tysa.

The massif is located within the Skybkova tectonic zone. Upper Cretaceous and Palaeogene flysch is well-represented here up to the upper Oligocene. Mountain rangers’ surfaces have panzers of Yamna sandstones, which are extremely resistant to weathering. This is them that make up stony fields in the Pre-Watershed Horhany- so-called “hrehots”.

The massifs relief is a rather complicated one. Here dominate mid-mountain and low-mountain steep-denudation forms densely curved by the hydrological net. A characteristic feature of the relief is presence of stony placers that cover pre-summit slopes and summits.

A very specific landscape has originated here – the Horhanskyi. It is characterized by ranges of a medium height with sharp rocky crests, slide-rocks, deep transverse valleys with subalpine crooked-woodland and spruce-beech forests on steep slopes. River valleys are narrow deep gorges with steep rocky slopes.

The massif lies within the Horhany area of the Horhany-Yasinya district of the Transcarpathian mountain brownsoil province. Acid brownsoils dominate in the topsoil (Distric Cambisols) Great areas of stony placers belong to the primitive and initial soils (Lithic Leptosols). High acidity is characteristic for the brownsoils of the massif (pH <4.0), poor profile (less then 60 cm), high content of rough humus (from 10-12% in the upper horizons to 1-2% in the front ones) and low content of amphoteric bases (degree of saturation less then 30%). The soils are greatly saturated with organic matter often not decayed. Here is a great percentage of soil rocks debris. Thickness elevates from a few cm to 30-40 cm.

Climate conditions change from mild to cold. The temperature in July elevates from +15°C to +12°C, and in January – from -5 to -10. The sum of active temperatures changes with the altitude from 1800 to 800°C. Annual amount of precipitation constitutes from 850 to 1800 mm/year, mean annual temperature – from +8°C to 0°C.

Vegetation

Main forest communities are beech ones (Fagetum) and on the higher altitudes mixed spruce-fir-beech (Piceeto-Abieto-Fagetum), fir-beech-spruce (Abieto-Fageto-Piceetum) and monodominant spruce (Piceetum) phytocoenoses are found. Above the forest ones, crooked woodland phytocoenoses with domination of Pinus mygo are distributed.

In the underbrush of forest phytocoenoses grow Lonicera nigra, Daphne mezereum, Sambucus racemosa etc.

In the herbaceous layer there dominate Rubus hirtus, Dentaria glandulosa, Anemone nemorosa, Oxalis acetosella, Dryopteris filix-mas, Athyrium filix-femina, Phegopteris connectilis etc. Such rare species are found here: Lunaria rediviva, Atropa belladonna, Lilium martagon, Mellitis carpatica. Euphemeroids are sporadically distributed: Leucojum vemum, Galanthus nivalis, Sdlla bifolia.

General characteristics of virgin forests

Virgin forests of the Pre-Watershed Horhany Mts. Cover an area of 7087,5 ha and are divided into 20 clusters (Fig. 25). The largest of them has an area of 1571,5 ha, and the smallest – 69,0 ha. Virgin forests are distributed within the Brusturyanske SFHE, Mokryanske SFHE and Yasinya SFHE. They lie within 750-1580 m a.s.l. mostly on slopes with south-western, southern and south-eastern exposition. Slope gradient fluctuates within 30-35°.

Local virgin forests belong to the broadleaved, mixed, coniferous forests and crooked woodland zones.

By the forest stand types here dominate pure spruce stands (50,7 %) and they are distributed in the following manner:

• pure forests of Fagus sylvatica -197,2 ha (2,8 %);

• pure forests of Picea abies – 3590,5 ha (50,7 %);

• forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba -1751,6 ha (24,7 %)

• forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba -1179,6 ha (16,6 %);

• forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Pinus cembra-201,0 ha (2,8%);

• pure forests of Pinus mugo -167,6 ha (2,4 %).

Characteristics of clusters

1. Code in the database: БР.ТУ.1. Location: Turbatske forestry of the Brusturyanske SFHE. Area: 258,0 ha. Altitude range: 1250-1400 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: western. Mean slope gradient: 25°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests.

2. Code in the database: БР.ТУ.2. Location: Turbatske forestry of the Brusturyanske SFHE. Area: 107,8 ha. Altitude range: 900-1100 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southeastern. Mean slope gradient 35°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: managed forests and partially forests of the state reserve.

3. Code in the database: БР.ТУ.4.ЯС.ЧТ.З. Location: Chorna Tysa forestry of the Yasinya SFHE and Turbatske forestry of the Brusturyanske SFHE. Area: 258,7 ha. Altitude range: 1300-1400 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southern. Mean slope gradient: 30°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests.

4. Code in the database: БР.КЕ.1.БР.ПЛ.4. Location: Kedrynske and Plaiske forestries of the Brusturyanske SFHE. Area: 336,4 ha. Altitude range: 1100-1400 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: eastern. Mean slope gradient: 25°. Pure forests of Picea abies – 240,8 ha (71,6%); forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 92,4 ha (27,5%); pure forests of Pinus mugo – 3,2 ha (1,0%). Protection status: protective forests.

5. Code in the database: БР.ПЛ.1. Location: Plaiske forestry of the Brusturyanske SFHE. Area: 713,8 ha. Altitude range: 1000-1500 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northern. Mean slope gradient: 25°. Pure forests of Picea abies – 422,8 ha (59,3%); forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Pinus cembra 201,0 ha (28,2%); forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 85,3 ha (12,0%); pure forests of Pinus mugo – 4,7 ha (0,7%). Protection status: protective forests and partially botanic reserve.

6. Code in tie database: БР.ПЛ.2.БР.ТУ.5. Location: Plaiske and Turbatske forestries of the Brusturyanske SFHE. Area: 376,6 ha. Altitude range: 1100-1500 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: north-western. Mean slope gradient: 33°. Pure forests of Picea abies – 226,6 ha (60,2%); forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 150,2 (38,0%); forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba – 6,8 ha (1,8%). Protection status: protective forests.

7. Code in the database: БР.ПЛ.З. Location: Plaiske forestry of the Brusturyanske SFHE. Area: 274,6 ha. Altitude range: 1100-1550 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northern. Mean slope gradient 23°. Pure forests of Picea abies -117,2 ha (42,7%); forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 77,3 ha (28,2%); pure forests of Pinus mugo – 80,1 ha (29,2%). Protection status: protective forests.

8. Code in the database: МО.БР.1. Location: Bradulske forestry of the Mokryanske SFHE. Area: 214,4 ha. Altitude range: 1050-1580 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southern. Mean slope gradient: 28°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests and partially botanic reserve.

9. Code in the database: МО.БР.2. Location: Bradulske forestry of the Mokryanske SFHE. Area: 373,2 ha. Altitude range: 1100-1450 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: eastern. Mean slope gradient 33°. Pure forests of Picea abies – 292,7 ha (78,4%); forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 80,5 ha (21,6%). Protection status: protective forests.

10. Code in the database: МО.БР.З.МО.КО.З. Location: Bradulske and Komsomolske forestries of the Makryanske SFE. Area: 351,0 ha. Altitude range: 900-1300 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-eastern. Mean slope gradient: 25°. Forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 151,9 ha (43,3%); forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba – 149,5 ha (42,6%); pure forests of Picea abies – 49,6 ha (14,1%). Protection status: protection forests.

11. Code in the database: МО.БР.4. Location: Bradulske forestry of the Mokryanske SFHE. Area: 305,9 ha. Altitude range: 750-1500 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: western. Mean slope gradient: 33°. Pure forests of Picea abies – 240,9 ha (78,8%); forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 35,5 ha (11,6%); pure forests of Picea abies – 29,5 ha (9,6%). Protection status: protective forests.

12. Code in the database: МО.БР.5. Location: Bradulske forestry of the Mokryanske SFHE. Area: 75,4 ha. Altitude range: 1100-1450 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: western. Mean slope gradient: 28°. Forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba. Protection status: protective forests and botanic reserve.

13. Code in the database: MO.KO.4. Location: Komsomolske forestry of the Mokryanske SFHE. Area: 145,7 ha. Altitude range: 900-1200 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southern. Mean slope gradient: 33°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba – 137,9 ha (94,6%); forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 7,8 ha (5,4%). Protection status: protective forests.

14. Code in the database: MO.KO.5. Location: Komsomolske forestry of the Mokryanske SFHE. Area: 143,9 ha. Altitude range: 900-1250 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southeastern. Mean slope gradient 30°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba – 137,3 ha (95,4%); pure forests of Fagus sylvatica – 6,6 ha (4,6%). Protection status: protective forests.

15. Code in the database: MO.PM.1. Location: Ruska Mokra forestry of the Mokryanske SFHE. Area: 559,2 ha. Altitude range: 1000-1450 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southern. Mean slope gradient: 30°. Pure forests of Picea abies – 469,1 ha (83,9%); pure forests of Pinus mugo – 79,6 ha (14,2%); forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 10,5 ha (1,9%). Protection status: protective forests and botanic reserve.

16. Code in the database: MO.PM.2.MO.KO.1 .МО.БР.6. Location: Ruska Mokra and Komsomolske forestries of the Mokryanske SFHE. Area: 1571,5 ha. Altitude range: 800-1450 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: north-western. Mean slope gradient: 28°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba – 1062,5 ha (67,6%); forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 294,8 ha (18,8%); pure forests of Picea abies -214,2 ha (13,6%). Protection status: protective forests.

17. Code in the database: МО.РМ.З.БР.ЛО.4. Location: Ruska Mokra forestry of the Mokryanske SFHE and Lopukhivske forestry of the Brusturyanske SFHE. Area: 384,0 ha. Altitude range: 800-1300 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northern. Mean slope gradient: 23°. Pure forests of Fagus sylvatica -188,6 ha (49,1 %); forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba – 144,8 ha (37,7%); forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 50,6 ha (13,2%). Protection status: protective forests.

18. Code in the database: МО.РМ.4.БР.КЕ.З. Location: Ruska Mokra forestry of the Mokryanske SFHE and Kedrynske forestry of the Brusturyanske SFHE. Area: 490,4 ha. Altitude range: 900-1350 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-western. Mean slope gradient: 33°. Pure forests of Picea abies – 324,1 ha (66,1%); forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba – 89,7 ha (18,3%); forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 76,6 ha (15,6%). Protection status: protection forests.

19. Code in the database: ЯС.ДЖ.1. Location: Dovzhanske forestry of the Yasinya SFHE. Area: 69,0 ha. Altitude range: 1400-1500 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northeastern. Mean slope gradient 30°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests.

20. Code in the database: ЯС.ЧТ.2. Location: Chorna Tysa forestry of the Yasinya SFHE”. Area: 76,0 ha. Altitude range: 1400-1500 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southeastern. Mean slope gradient 25°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests.

Source: Hamor F., Dovhanych Ya., Pokynchereda V., Sukharyuk D., Bundzyak Yo., Berkela Yu., Voloshchuk M., Hodovanets В., Kabal M. Virgin forests of Transcarpathia. Inventory and management. – Rakhiv, 2008. – 86 p.

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