VIRGIN FOREST OF THRANSCARPTHIA. KRASNA MASSIF. DESCRIPTION BY OROGRAPHIC UNITS
Hamor F., Dovhanych Ya., Pokynchereda V., Sukharyuk D., Bundzyak Yo., Berkela Yu., Voloshchuk M., Hodovanets В., Kabal M.
The massif lies within the Krasnyanskyi physical-geographic area of the Middlemaountain-Polonyny region and Uholka physical-geographic area of the Lowmountain-Rocky region.
It is located between the rivers Tereblya and Teresva. From the Near-watershed Horhany Mts. it is separated by the Mokryanka river valley and its right tributary – the Pryslop River.
It lies within the Duklyanska, Prokuletska, Rakhiv and Maramorosh tectonic zones. The Duklyanska zone covers the northeastern part of the massif and is represented by sandy and clay-sandy flysch. The southwestern part of the massif is occupied with the formations of the Prokuletska zone, which is represented by massive diverse-grained sandstones. The southern part of the massif is made up of the Maramorosh rocky zone sediments, which are represented by Cretaceous sediments, Palaeogene sandstones, gridstones, aleurolites, maristones and argillites, and also small-grained greenish-grey flysch with some stratums of grey small-grained sandstones.
The massifs relief is a rather complicated one. Here dominate middle-mountain, low-mountain and steep-denudation landscapes densely fragmented by the hydrographic net A peculiar feature of the relief is presence of rocky strands with cliff formations. Karst developments are also associated with this area. Summit denudation leveled surfaces and nival forms are characteristic for the massif too (mountain ridges Krasna and Menchil).
The massif lies in the western part of the Svydovets-Krasna area of the Polonyny middle-mountain district of brown and mountain-meadow soils of the Transcarpathian mountain brownsoil province. Acid brownsoils dominate in the topsoil (Distric Cambisols). Only insignificant areas on rocks are covered with primitive and initial soils (Lithic Leptosols). High acidity is characteristic for the brownsoils of the massif (pH 4,0), as well as a powerful profile (100-150 cm), high content of rough humus (from 12-15% in upper horizons to 2-3% in transitive ones) and low content of amphoteric bases (Bundzyak, 2002). The soils and very stony, mostly mid-loamy with good water and air penetration ability.
Climate conditions change from mild-warm to cold. The temperature in July elevates from +17°C to +12°C, and in January – from -3 to -10°C. The sum of active temperatures changes with the altitude from 2300 to 800°C. Annual precipitation – from 450 to 1500 mm, mean annual temperature – from +10°C to 0°C.
The massif is located in the beech forests zone (Fagetum) where zonal beech stands dominate. In lower warmer places mixed oak-beech (Querceto-Fagetum) and hornbeam-beech (Carpineto-Fagetum) forests are found. Relict phytocoenoses of beech forests with participation of Taxus baccate, Tilia plathyphyllos are distributed here. Beech stands make up the upper forest line. Above them there are fragments of crooked woodland of Duschekia viridis. In the underbrush Sambucus nigra, S. racemosa, Daphne mezereum and other species are sporadically found.
In the herbaceous layer there dominate Oxalis acetosella, Rubus hirtus, Anemone nemorosa, Dentaria glandulosa, Galium odoratum and some other species. There is a great diversity of ferns here, among which dominate Athyrium filix-femina, Dryopteris filix-mas, Phegopteris connectilis, Polypodium vulgare etc. Euphemeroids are well-distributed here: Galanthus nivalis, Leucojum vemum, Scilla bifolia. Such red-Hosted species are found here: Atropa belladonna, Lunaria rediviva, Epipactis helleborine, LJIium martagon, Scopdia camblica and endemics – Galium transcarpaticum and Mellitis carpatica.
General characteristics of virgin forests
Virgin forests of the massif cover an area of 14486.4 ha and make up two clusters (Figure 24). The first one is the biggest in Transcarpathia and in the Ukrainian Carpathians in general -14405,9 ha. Virgin forests of this massif lie on the territory of CBR, Khust SFE, Bushtyno SFE and Mokryanske SFHE. They are distributed within 600-1300 m a.s.l. and are mostly concentrated on the slopes with south-western exposition. Slope gradient fluctuates within 25-30°.
Virgin forests of the massif grow within the broadleaved, mixed and coniferous vegetation zones.
By the forest stand types here dominate: pure forests with Fagus sylvatica -11701,5 ha (80,8 %):
• forests with domination of Fagus sylvatica and admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus-1318,2 ha (9,1 %);
• forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba -1271,7 ha (8,8 %);
• forests of Abies alba with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies -185,0 ha (1,3 %);
• forests of Quercus petraea with admixtures of Fagus sjA<afica-10,Oha(0,1%).
Characteristics of clusters
1. Code in the database: КБ.УГ.1.+КБ.ШЛ.1.+ ХСДР.1.+ ХС.ВШ.1. + БШ.ТР.1.+ MO.KP.1.+ МО.УЧ.1.+ MO.PM.5.+ MO.KO.2.+MO.PM.6. Location: Uholka and Shyrokyi Luh NPSRDs of CBR; Drahivske and Vilshanske forestries of the Khust SFE; Tarasivske forestry of the Bushtyno SFE; Krasna, Ust-Chrona, Ruska-Mokra amnd Komsomolske forestries of the Mokryanske SFHE. Area: 14405,9 ha. Altitude range: 600-1300 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southwestern. Mean slope gradient 23°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus-1318,2 ha (9,16%), pure forests of Fagus sylvatica - 11621 ha (80,67%); forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba
• 1271,7 ha (8,82%); forests of Abies alba with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies - 185 ha (1,29%); forests of Quercus petraea with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica - 10 ha (0,06%). Protection status: protective forests, biosphere reserve.
2. Code in the database: MO.KO.6. Location: Komsomolske forestry of the Mokryanske SFHE. Area: 80,5 ha. Altitude range: 1100-1250 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-western. Mean slope gradient: 33°. Pure forests of Fagus sylvatica. Protection status: protective forests.
Source: Hamor F., Dovhanych Ya., Pokynchereda V., Sukharyuk D., Bundzyak Yo., Berkela Yu., Voloshchuk M., Hodovanets В., Kabal M. Virgin forests of Transcarpathia. Inventory and management. – Rakhiv, 2008. – 86 p.