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Hamor F., Dovhanych Ya., Pokynchereda V., Sukharyuk D., Bundzyak Yo., Berkela Yu., Voloshchuk M., Hodovanets В., Kabal M.

Physical-geographic properties

Located on the southern megaslope of the Rakhiv Mts. – one of the offshoots of the Maramorosh crystalline massif within the altitude from 380 to 1940 m.a.s.l. The massif lies within the Rakhiv-Chyvchynska physical-geographic region.

The northern boundary of the massif goes along the White Tysa river valley and more to the south from Rakhiv it goes across the Tysa River and is separated from the Svydovets massif by the Kisva River. The Ukrainian-Romanian state border makes up its southern boundary.

The following structural components are singled out going from the northeast to southwest: Rakhiv and Radomyrska structural-facies zones and the Maramorosh crystalline massif. The Rakhiv zone is made up of flysch carbon-terrigene sediments of the lower Cretaceous period and metamorphic basal rocks – Vendian-Cembrian schist The Radomyrska zone is formed by main volcanic rocks, carbon rocks of the upper Jurassic and metamorphic rocks (upper Proterozoic schist and gneiss).

The territory of the massif refers to mid-mountain erosion relief type with some fragments of the leveled denudation surfaces and elements of the ancient glacial relief. The greatest part of its area is occupied with erosion-denudation slopes of valleys and mountain ranges complicated by smaller morphosculptural components. Great fragmentation of the area is explained by rocks’ resistance to weathering.

The massif covers Tysa’s left tributaries catchments and is densely curved with a network of small water channels.

Landscapes of ancient glacial-erosion subalpine highland, ancient glacial-accumulative forested mid-mountain and steep-sloped erosion-denudation forested mid-mountain landscapes are distributed here.

The massif lies within the Maramorosh district of brown and mountain-meadow soils of the Transcarpathian mountain brownsoil province. Acid brownsoil (Dislric Cambisols) dominate here. Low percentage, mostly on rocks, belongs to primitive and initial soils (Lithic Leptosols). High acidity is characteristic for brownsoils here (pH 4,0), as well as a powerful profile (80-100 cm), sufficient content of rough humus (from 10-12% in upper horizons to 1-2% in transitive ones) and low content of amphoteric bases (degree of saturation less then 30%). The soils are greatly stony, mostly mid-loamy with good water and air penetration ability.

Climate conditions here are milder then the ones of the Carpathian highland. Mean annual temperature constitutes +8° C. Mean amount of precipitation constitutes 600 mm, 430 mm of which belong to warm seasons. Snow cover is 40-60 cm thick and 50-100 cm on higher altitudes.

Vegetation

Vegetation here is characterized by a specific vegetation cover. On the lower hypsometric levels mixed broadleaved-coniferous and broadleaved forests with dominating moist beech (Fagetum), beech-fir-spruce (Fageto-Abieto-Piceetum) and spruce-fir-beech (Piceeto-Abieto-Fagetum) phyto-coenoses. The upper forest line, which is located on the altitude of 1600-1700 m.a.s.l., is made up of pure climax spruce stands (Piceetum). Higher there are phytocoenoses of crooked woodland with participation of Duschekia viridis, Junipervs sibirica and Pinus mugo.

In the underbrush there grow Daphne mezereum, Rosa pendulina, Sambucus racemosa etc. Within the herbaceous layer of the give phytocoenoses there dominate Anemone nemorosa, Dryopteris filix-mas, Athyrium filix-femina, Oxalis acetosella, Galium odoratum etc. Among rare species we find Campanula carpatica, Scopolia camidica, LJIium martagon, Platanthera bifolia, Neottia nidus avis etc.

General characteristic of virgin forests

Virgin forests of the Maramorosh massif cover an area of 3432,7 ha and are divided into 14 clusters (Fig. 23). The biggest of them has an area of 795,6 ha, and the smallest one

• 95,6 ha. The virgin forests lie within CBR, Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE and Rakhiv SFE. They are located within the altitudes 600-1650 m a.s.l. and are concentrated on the slopes with northern, north-eastern and south-western expositions. Mean slope gradient-15-33°.

Virgin forests of the Maramorosh massif belong to the zones of mixed and coniferous forests.

By forest stand types here dominate pure and mixed spruce virgin forests (84,1 %). They are distributed in the following manner:

• pure forests of Picea abies -1945,6 ha (56,7 %);

• forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba-97,2 ha (2,8%);

• forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 940,6 ha (27,4 %);

• forests of Abies alba with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies – 449,3 ha (13,1 %).

Characteristics of clusters

1. Code in the database: ВБ.ДІ.1. Location: Dilove forestry of Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE. Area: 128,9 ha. Altitude range: 600-700 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: north-eastern. Mean slope gradient: 30°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba. Protection status: protective forests.

2. Code in the database: ВБ.ДІ.2. Location: Dilove forestry of Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE. Area: 188,4 ha. Altitude range: 1000-1150 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: north-eastern. Mean slope gradient 30°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba. Protection status: protective forests.

3. Code in the database: ВБ.КО.2. Location: Kostylivka forestry of Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE. Area: 129,7 ha. Altitude range: 950-1100 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southwestern. Mean slope gradient 30°. Forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba. Protection status: protective forests.

4. Code in the database: ВБ.ЛУ.2. Location: Luzhanske forestry of Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE. Area: 97.2 ha. Altitude range: 800-900 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southwestern. Mean slope gradient 30°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba. Protection status: protective forests.

5. Code in the database: КА.МА.1.ВБ.КО.1. Location: Maramorosh NPSRD of CBR and Kostylivka forestry of Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE. Area: 383,3 ha. Altitude range: 1100-1450 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northern. Mean slope gradient: 30°. Forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 258,1 ha (67,3 %); pure forests of Picea abies – 125,2 ha (32,7 %). Protection status: protective forests, biosphere reserve.

6. Code in the database: KA.MA.2. Location: Maramorosh NPSRD of CBR. Area: 795,6 ha. Altitude range: 1000-1650 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northern. Mean slope gradient: 33°. Forests of Рісеа abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 321,8 ha (40,4 %); pure forests of Picea abies – 473,8 ha (59,6 %). Protection status: biosphere reserve.

7. Code in the database: КБЗ.ТР.1. Location: Trybushany NPSRD of CBR. Area: 425,6 ha. Altitude range: 1250-1280 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-western. Mean slope gradient: 15°. Forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba -198,0 ha (46,5 %); pure forests of Picea abies – 227,6 ha (53,5 %). Protection status: biosphere reserve.

8. Code in the database: КБЗ.ТР.2. Location: Trybushany NPSRD of CBR. Area: 75,5 ha. Altitude range: 870-870 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-western. Mean slope gradient: 25°. Forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba. Protection status: biosphere reserve.

9. Code in the database: КБЗ.ТР.З. Location: Trybushany NPSRD of CBR. Area: 56,5 ha. Altitude range: 850-900 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-western. Mean slope gradient: 25°. Forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba. Protection status: biosphere reserve.

10. Code in the database: РА.ЩА.З. Location: Shchaul forestry of Rakhiv SFE. Area: 50,6 ha. Altitude range: 1350-1450 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: north-eastern. Mean slope gradient: 25°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests.

11. Code in the database: РА.ЩА.4. Location: Shchaul forestry of Rakhiv SFE. Area: 80,7 ha. Altitude range: 1350-1450 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: north-eastern. Mean slope gradient: 27°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests.

12. Code in the database: РА.ЩА.З. Location: Shchaul and Bilotysyanske forestries of Rakhiv SFE. Area: 679,6 ha. Altitude range: 1350-1550 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-western. Mean slope gradient: 25°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests.

13. Code in the database: РА.ЩА.6.РА.УС.З. Location: Shchaul and Usteriky forestries of Rakhiv SFE. Area: 223,1 ha. Altitude range: 1300-1550 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-western. Mean slope gradient: 20°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests

14. Code in the database: РА.ЩА.7. Location: Shchaul forestry of Rakhiv SFE. Area: 118,0 ha. Altitude range: 1100-1450 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: north-eastern. Mean slope gradient: 25°. Pure forests of Picea abies; forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 33,0 ha (28%). Protection status: protective forests.

Source: Hamor F., Dovhanych Ya., Pokynchereda V., Sukharyuk D., Bundzyak Yo., Berkela Yu., Voloshchuk M., Hodovanets В., Kabal M. Virgin forests of Transcarpathia. Inventory and management. – Rakhiv, 2008. – 86 p.

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