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Hamor F., Dovhanych Ya., Pokynchereda V., Sukharyuk D., Bundzyak Yo., Berkela Yu., Voloshchuk M., Hodovanets В., Kabal M.

Physical-geographic properties

Located on slopes of the Svydovets mountain range offshoots on the altitude from 300 to 1883 m.a.s.l. The massif lies within the Svydovets-Chornohora physical geographic area of the Polonyny-Chornohora region of the East Carpathian sub-province.

From the Chornohora massif Svydovets is separated by the Tysa river valley, from the Krasna – by the Teresva river, and from the Near-watershed Horhany – by the Burustyanka, Turbat and Black Tysa rivers. In the southern part the Maramorosh massif comes into the massif and no boundary between them is evident.

The Svydovets massif is located within the Svydovets structural-facies zone. This is a monotonous mid-rhythmic flysch that occupies significant part of the massif. The Svydovets zone is characterized by presence of Palaeocene and Eocene flysch with domination of dark day argillites and sandstone.

The relief of the Svydovets massif is characterized by asymmetric northern and southern slopes. Southern slopes, which have not undergone glacial impact, preserved some traces of the old peneplain. Formation of the northern Svydovets slopes was influenced by Pleistocene icing which had resulted well-formed glacial and post-glacial relief forms. Western part of the massif is characterized by middle mountain relief complicated by erosion-denudation activity of water channels. Upper part of the Svydovets mountain range is characterized by flat saddles and gentle piedmonts.

The massif is occupied by the Back Tysa, Kisva, Shopurka and Teresva rivers catchments and by a dense network of water channels.

The massif lies in the southeastern part of the Svydovets-Krasna area of the Polonyny mid-mountain brownsoil and mountain-meadow soils district of the Transcarpathian mountain brownsoil province. Acid brownsoils totally dominate here (Distric Cambisols). Only insignificant percentage (on rocks) belongs to primitive and initial soils (Lithic Leptosols). The brownsoils of the massif are characterized by high acidity (pH 4,0), a powerful profile (80-100 cm), sufficient content of rough humus (from 10-12% the upper horizons to 1-2% in transitive ones) and by low content of amphoteric bases (degree of saturation less then 30%). Soils are greatly stony, mostly mid-loamy with water and air penetration ability.

Climate conditions change from mild-warm to cold. Temperature in July varies from +17°C to +8°C, and in January – from -3 to -12°C. The sum of active temperatures changes as the altitude becomes higher from 2300 to 600°C. Mean annual amount of precipitation constitutes from 750 to 1500 mm/year, mean annual temperature – from +10°C to 0°C.

Vegetation

Vegetation here is mostly represented by moist beech (Fagetum) phytocoenoses up to the altitude 1380 m a.sl, which is the highest forest line for beech stands in the Ukrainian Carpathians. On the slopes with southern exposition there grow forest phytocoenoses with Quercus petraea, which grows up to the altitude of 1089 m on the Tempa Mt and is the most highland habitat of this species in Ukraine. Beech-maple (Fageto-Aceretum)and beech-maple-ash (Fageto-Acereto-Fraxinetum) forest phytocoenoses are distributed on rocky relief forms in fragments. On the northern macro-slopes there are mixed stands with Abies alba. The upper forest line, which is located on the altitude 1400 m a.sl, is made up of pure climax spruce stands (Piceetum), and higher there grow phytocoenoses of crooked woodland of Duschekia viridis and Junipervs sibirica and rarely – Padus racemosa.

In the underbrush of beech forests there sporadically grow Viburnum opulus, Swida sanquinea, Daphne mesereum etc.

In the herbaceous layer there dominate Dentaria glandulosa, Galium odoratum, Athyrium filix-femina etc. On limestone outcrops a very unique calciphilous flora is found: Ranunculus cassubicus, Melica nutans, Campanula carpatica, Phylliltis scdopendrium, Helleborus purpurascens, Scopdia camidica, Erytronium dens-canis etc.

General characteristic of virgin forests

Virgin forests of the Svydovets massif cover an area of 8853,3 ha and are divided into 26 clusters (Fig. 20). The biggest of them has an area of 1862,9 ha, and the smallest one – 63,3 ha. Virgin forests are located within CBR, Brusturyanske SFHE, Bushtyno SFE, Velykyi Bychkiv SFE, Mokryanske SFHE, Rakhiv SFE and Yasinya SFHE. They lie on the altitude of 600-1500 m a.s.l. and are concentrated on the slopes with south-western, western and south-eastern expositions with the slope gradient about 20-30°.

They belong to the zones of broadleaved, mixed, coniferous forests and crooked woodland.

By forest stand types they are distributed in the following manner:

• pure forests of Fagus sylvatica - 3715,8 ha (42,0 %);

• pure forests of Picea abies -1044,9 ha (11,8 %)

• forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus -3457,6 ha (39,1 %);

• forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba - 306,5 ha (3,5 %);

• forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba - 216,5 ha (2,4 %);

• forests of Abies alba with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies - 86,0 ha (1,0 %);

• pure forests of Duschekia viridis - 26,0 ha (0,3 %).

Characteristics of clusters

1. Code in the database: БР.ЛО.1. Location: Lopukhivske forestry of Brusturyanske SFHE. Area: 911,2 haAltitude range: 975-1375 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northeastern. Mean slope gradient 30°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus - 841,1 ha (92,3 %); pure forests of Picea abies - 70,1 ha (7,7 %). Protection status: protective forests.

2. Code in the database: БР.ЛО.2. Location: Lopukhivske forestry of the Brusturyanske SFHE. Area: 146,7 ha. Altitude range: 930-1450 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southwestern. Mean slope gradient: 30°. Pure forests of Picea abies - 51,2 ha (34,9 %); forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba - 95,5 ha (65,1 %). Protection status: protective.

3. Code in the database: БР.ТУ.З. Location: Turbatske forestry of the Brusturyanske SFHE. Area: 463,6 ha. Altitude range: 1250-1400 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northern. Mean slope gradient 30°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests.

4. Code in the database: Бр.Ке.2.Бр.Ло.5. Location: Kedrynske and Lopukhivske forestries of the Brusturyanske SFHE. Area: 201,2 ha. Altitude range: 1100-1350 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: western. Mean slope gradient: 25°. Pure forests of Picea abies - 64,7 ha (32,2 %); forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba -136,5 ha (67,8 %). Protection status: protective forests.

5. Code in the database: БУ.НЕ.1. Location: Neresnyanmske forestry of the Bushtyno SFE. Area: 152,3 ha. Altitude range: 925-1210 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: western. Mean slope gradient: 30°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus. Protection status: protective forests.

6. Code in the database: ВБ.ВВ.1. Location: Verkhnye Vodyane forestry of the Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE. Area: 80,5 ha. Altitude range: 1150-1240 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-eastern. Mean slope gradient: 25°. Pure forests of Fagus sylvatica. Protection status: protective forests.

7. Code in the database: ВБ.КБП.1. Location: Kobyletska Polyana forestry of the Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE. Area: 247,1 ha. Altitude range: 950-1290 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: western. Mean slope gradient 30°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus. Protection status: protective forests.

8. Code in the database: ВБ.КСП.1. Location: Kosivska Polyana forestry of the Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE. Area: 198,1 ha. Altitude range: 730-1050 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: western. Mean slope gradient: 30°. Pure forests of Fagus sylvatica. Protection status: protective forests.

9. Code in the database: ВБ.КСП.З. Location: Kosivska Polyana forestry of the Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE. Area: 98,9 ha. Altitude range: 710-1150 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: western. Mean slope gradient: 30°. Pure forests of Fagus sylvatica. Protection status: protective forests.

10. Code in the database: ВБ.СР.1+ВБ.ЩЕ.4+ВБ.СР.2. Location: Shcherbylivske and Serednyoritske forestries of the Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE. Area: 327,4 ha. Altitude range: 1150-1350 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: western. Mean slope gradient 30°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus. Protection status: protective forests.

11. Code in the database: ВБ.СР.4+ВБ.ЩЕ.5. Location: Shcherbylivske and Serednyoritske forestries of the Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE. Area: 402,5 ha. Altitude range: 950-1290 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: western. Mean slope gradient: 30°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus. Protection status: protective forests.

12. Code in the database: ВБ.ЩЕ.2. Location: Shcherbylivske forestry of the Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE. Area: 92,2 ha. Altitude range: 1100-1150 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-eastern. Mean slope gradient: 25°. Pure forests of Fagus sylvatica. Protection status: protective forests.

13. Code in the database: ВБ.ЩЕ.З+ВБ.ВВ.2. Location: Shcherbylivske and Verkhnye Vodyane forestries of the Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE. Area: 79,7 ha. Altitude range: 1250-1320 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: western. Mean slope exposition: 25°. Pure forests of Fagus sylvatica. Protection status: protective forests.

14. Code in the database: КБ.КВ.2. Location: Keveliv NPSRD of CBR. Area: 181,3 ha. Altitude range: 1000-1200 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-eastern. Mean slope gradient: 30°. Forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba - 80,0 ha (44,1 %); forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus - 14,3 ha (7,9 %); pure forests of Fagus sylvatica - 87,0 ha (48,0). Protection status: biosphere reserve.

15. Code in the database: КБ.КВ.З. Location: Keveliv NPSRD of CBR. Area: 80,0 ha. Altitude range: 1000-1200 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: north-eastern. Mean slope gradient: 20°. Pure forests of Picea abies - 54,0 ha (67,5 %); pure forests of Duschekia viridis - 26,0 ha (32,5 %). Protection status: biosphere reserve.

16. Code in the database: КБ.КВ.9. Location: Keveliv NPSRD of CBR. Area: 72,3 ha. Altitude range: 1150-1320 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northern. Mean slope exposition: 30°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus. Protection status: biosphere reserve.

17. Code in the database: КБЗ.КСП.1.ВБ.КСП.2.ВБ.СР.2. Location: Kuziy-Svydovets NPSRD of CBR, Kosivska Polyana and Sevednye Vodyane forestsries of the Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE. Area: 1862,9 ha. Altitude range: 900-1280 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: western. Mean slope exposition: 25°. Pure forests of Fagus sylvatica -1274,1 ha (68,4 %); forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus - 588,8 ha (31,6 %). Protection status: protective.

18. Code in the database: МО.ТИ.1+МО.УЧ.2.+ВБ.СР.З+ ВБ.ЩЕ.1. Location: Tykhovetske and Ust-Chorna forestries of the Mokryanske SFHE, Serednyoritske and Shcherbylivske forestries of the Velykyi Bychkiv SFHE. Area: 1726,6 ha. Altitude range: 600-1300 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-western. Mean slope gradient 30°. Pure forests of Fagus sylvatica - 1493,3 ha (86,5 %); forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus -233,3 ha (13,5 %). Protection status: protective forests.

19. Code in the database: МО.ТИ.2. Location: Tykhovetske forestry of the Mokryanske SFHE. Area: 63,3 ha. Altitude range: 1075-1275 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northwestern. Mean slope gradient – 30°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus. Охоронний статус: захисні ліси.

20. Code in the database: МО.ТИ.З. Location: Tykhovetske forestry of the Mokryanske SFHE. Area: 137,4 ha. Altitude range: 1000-1175 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northwestern. Mean slope gradient 30°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus. Protection status: protective forests.

21. Code in the database: МО.УЧ.З. Location: Ust-Chorna forestry of the Mokryanske SFHE. Area: 93,9 ha. Altitude range: 950-1250 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-western. Mean slope gradient: 30°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus. Protection status: protective forests.

22. Code in the database: PX.KC.1. Location: Kvasy forestry of the Rakhiv SFE. Area: 568,0 ha. Altitude range: 910-1350 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-western. Mean slope gradient: 23°. Forests of Abies alba with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies- 86,0 ha (15,1 %); pure forests of Picea abies - 65,3 ha (11,5 %); forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba - 189,0 ha (33,3 %); pure forests of Fagus sylvatica - 227,7 ha (40,1 %). Protection status: protective.

23. Code in the database: PX.KC.2. Location: Kvasy forestry of the Rakhiv SFE. Area: 283,9 ha. Altitude range: 900-1200 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-eastern. Mean slope gradient 25°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus. Protection status: protective forests.

24. Code in the database: PX.KC.3. Location: Kvasy forestry of the Rakhiv SFE. Area: 106,3 ha. Altitude range: 850-1150 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-eastern. Mean slope gradient 30°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba - 22,0 ha (20,7 %); pure forests of Fagus sylvatica - 84,3 ha (79,3 %). Protection status: protective forests.

25. Code in the database: ЯС.СТ.1. Location: Stanislavske forestry of the Yasinya SFHE. Area: 86,0 ha. Altitude range: 1300-1480 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northwestern. Mean slope gradient: 20°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests.

26. Code in the database: ЯС.ЧТ.1. Location: Chorna Tysa forestry of the Yasinya SFHE. Area: 190,0 ha. Altitude range: 1250-1500 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southeastern. Mean slope gradient 23°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests.

Source: Hamor F., Dovhanych Ya., Pokynchereda V., Sukharyuk D., Bundzyak Yo., Berkela Yu., Voloshchuk M., Hodovanets В., Kabal M. Virgin forests of Transcarpathia. Inventory and management. – Rakhiv, 2008. – 86 p.

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