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Hamor F., Dovhanych Ya., Pokynchereda V., Sukharyuk D., Bundzyak Yo., Berkela Yu., Voloshchuk M., Hodovanets В., Kabal M.

Physical-geographic properties

It is located within the Chornohora mountain range on the altitude from 450 to 2061 m.a.s.l. The massif lies within the Svydovets-Chornohora physical geographic area of the Polonyny-Chornohora region of the East Carpathian sub-province.

To the south it is separated from the Maramorosh massif by the tectonic fault, which is occupied by the White Tysa river valley. Western boundary of the massif goes along the White Tysa river valley.

Formations of the four zones participate in the Chornohora massif: the Chornohirska, the Duklyanska, the Porkuletska and the Burkutska. The Chornohirska (northeastern part of the massif) is represented by rough schistose and massive sandstones. More to the south there is the Duklyanska zone, which is characterized by domination of sandy flysch. Sediments of the Porkuletska zone (southeastern part of the massif) are represented by rough schistose flysch. Sediments of the Burkutska zone are mainly represented by grey massive and thick schistose sandstones and thin layers of argillites and siltstones of Cretaceous and Palaeogene ages.

For the geomorphologic structure of the top of the Chornohora massif flat saddles and gentle piedmont complicated by some signs of ancient icing with characteristic glacial formations (nival niches, kars, glacial-carved valleys) are characteristic (Tsys, 1962). In the middle-mountain part of the massif steep-sloped poorly terraced relief dominates complicated by the erosion-denudation activity of water channels and land subsidence.

The Chornohora massif lies within the southwestern leeward greatly moist deranged by a parallel river system slopes with domination of beech, spruce-beech-fir forests on acid brownsoils. A peculiar feature of the massif is presence of the ancient-glacial rocky highland landscapes mostly occupied with pine and alder crooked-woodland.

The massif is located within the Chornohora district of brown and mountain-meadow soils of the Transcarpathian mountain brownsoil province. Main soils of the massif are acid brownsoils (Distric Cambisols), less distributed are sod-brownsoil (Eutris Cambisols), initial (Lithic Leptosols) and mountain-meadow soils (Humus Cambisols). All of them are highly acid (pH 4.0), have a powerful profile (80-100 cm), significant percentage of rough humus (from 10-12% in its upper horizons to 1-2% in transit ones) and low content of amphoteric bases (degree of saturation less then 30%). Soils are mostly mid-loamy, but the higher the altitude is the greater amount of poorly-loamy soils becomes. Saturation of the profile with skeletal soil is great, but its distribution along the profile is uneven – poor content of skeletal soils in the upper and lower horizons.

Climate conditions vary from mild-warm to cold. Temperature in July varies from +12 С to +8°C, and in January – from -8 to -12°C. The sum of active temperatures becomes less on higher altitudes from 1400 to 300°C. Warm period constitutes from 212 to 170 days. Mean precipitation constitutes from 750 to 1500 mm/year, mean annual temperature – from +6°C to 0°C.

Vegetation

The vegetation is represented by beech (Fagetum), mixed spruce-fir-beech (Piceeto-Abieto-Fagetum) and spruce (Piceetum) forest phytocoenoses. The upper timber line, which is located on the altitude 1500-1600 m.a.s.l., is made up of pure climax spruse stands, and higher there is a crooked woodland zone with dominating Rfnus mugo, Duschekia viridis and Juniperus sibirica.

In the undergrowth of forestcoenoses there grow: Lonicera nigra, L xylosteum, Daphne mezereum, Sambucus racemosa, Ribes carpatica etc.

In the herbaceous leyer of forest phytocoenoses there grow: Oxa//s acetosella, Dryopteris filix-mas, Mercurialis perennis, Athyrium filix-femina, Galium odoratum etc. Such rare plants are found there Huperzia selago, Ranunculus carpaticus, LJIIium martagon, Corallorhiza trifida, Epipactis helleborine.

General characteristic of virgin forests

Virgin forests of the Chornohora massif cover an area of 4127,4 ha and are divided into 18 clusters (Fig. 22). The biggest of them has an area 692,1 ha and the smallest- 59,0 ha. They are distributed in the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve (CBR), Yasinya SFHE and Rakhiv SFE. The virgin forests are located within the altitude 745 – 1620 m a.s.l. and are concentrated mostly on the slopes with south-western, southern and south-eastern expositions, slope gradient -20-35°.

Virgin forests of Chornohora refer to the zones of broadleaved, mixed, coniferous forests and crooked woodland.

According to the forest stand types there dominate pure and mixed spruce (48,3 %) and pure and mixed beech (43,9%) virgin forests. They are distributed in the following manner:

• pure forests of Fagus sylvatica – 695,8 ha (16.9 %);

• pure forests of Picea abies -1.584,1 ha (38,4 %);

• forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus, Carpinus betulus – 33,9 ha (0,8 %);

• forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba -1080,8 ha (26,2 %)

• forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 407,5 ha (9,9 %);

• forests of Abies alba with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies -168,3 ha (4,1%);

• pure forests of Duschekia viridis -157,0 ha (3,8 %).

Characteristic of clusters

1. Code in the database: ЯС.Л3.1. Location: Lazeschyna forestry of Yasinya SFHE. Area: 87,5 ha. Altitude range: 1400-1500 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northeastern. Mean slope gradient 30°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests.

2. Code in the database: ЯС.Л3.2. Location: Lazeschyna forestry of Yasinya SFHE. Area: 80,0 ha. Altitude range: 1340-1490 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northeastern. Mean slope gradient 30°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests.

3. Code in the database: ЯС. ЛП.2. Location: Lopushanske forestry of Yasinya SFHE. Area: 135.0 ha. Altitude range: 1.200 – 1.400 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northeastern. Mean slope gradient 25°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests.

4. Code in the database: ЯС. ЛП.2. Location: Lopushanske forestry of Yasinya SFHE. Area: 82,0 ha. Altitude range: 1300-1450 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: northeastern. Mean slope gradient 30°. Pure forests of Picea abies. Protection status: protective forests.

5. Code in the database: ЯС. КБ.КВ.1. Location: Keveliv NPSRD of CBR. Area: 97.2 ha. Altitude range: 745-910 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: western. Mean slope gradient: 20°. Forests of Abies alba with admixture of Picea abies, Abies alba – 66,9 ha (66,9 %). Protection status: biosphere reserve.

6. Code in the database: КБ.КВ.4. Location: Keveliv NPSRD of CBR. Area: 92,0 ha. Altitude range: 1200-1500 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-eastern. Mean slope gradient: 30°. Pure forests of Duschekia viridis – 40,0 ha (43,5 %); pure forests of Picea abies- 52,0 ha (56,5 %). Protection status: biosphere reserve.

7. Code in the database: КБ.КВ.5. Location: Keveliv NPSRD of CBR. Area: 59.4 ha. Altitude range: 1200-1600 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southern. Mean slope gradient: 35°. Pure forests of Duschekia viridis – 22,0 ha (37,0 %); pure forests of Picea abies- 37,4 га (63,0 %). Protection status: biosphere reserve.

8. Code in the database: КБ.КВ.6. Location: Keveliv NPSRD of CBR. Area: 345.9 ha. Altitude range: 900-1100 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southern. Mean slope gradient: 25°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Acer pseudoplatanus – 33,9 га (9,8 %); Picea abies, Abies alba -312,0 га (90,2 %). Protection status: biosphere reserve.

9. Code in the database: КБ.КВ.7. Location: Keveliv NPSRD of CBR. Area: 209.3 ha. Altitude range: 1530-1620 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southern. Mean slope gradient: 23°. Pure forests of Picea abies – 114,3 га (54,6 %); pure forests of Duschekia viridis – 95,0 (45,4 %). Protection status: biosphere reserve.

10. Code in the database: КБ.КВ.8. Location: Keveliv NPSRD of CBR. Area: 59.0 ha. Altitude range: 1000-1100 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: southern. Mean slope gradient: 23°. Pure forests of Picea abies – 114,3 га (54,6 %) with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba. Protection status: biosphere reserve.

11. Code in the database: КА.ЧО.1. Location: Chornohora NPSRD of CBR. Area: 674.8 ha. Altitude range: 1000-1600 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-western. Mean slope gradient: 25°. Forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 230,2 ha (34,1%); forests of Abies alba with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Picea abies – 136,1 ha (20,2%); pure forests of Picea abies – 249,1 ha (36,9 %); forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba – 59,4 ha (8,8%). Protection status: biosphere reserve.

12. Code in the database: КА.БОПЕ.1. Location: Bohdan-Petroske NPSRD of CBR. Area: 106.5 ha. Altitude range: 900-1400 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-eastern. Mean slope gradient: 30°. Forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 58,6 ha (55,0 %); pure forests of Picea abies – 43,2 ha (40,6 %); forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba -4,7 ha (4,4 %). Protection status: biosphere reserve.

13. Code in the database: КА.БОПЕ.2.+РА.БО.1. Location: Bohdan-Pertoske NPSRD of CBR and Bohdan forestry of Rakhiv SFE. Area: 491.7 ha. Altitude range: 900-1350 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-western. Mean slope gradient: 30°. Pure forests of Fagus sylvatica -186,8 ha (38,0 %); forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 56,6 ha (11,5 %); forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba – 248,3 ha (50,5 %). Protection status: biosphere reserve, protective forests.

14. Code in the database: КА.БОПЕ.З.+РА.ГО.2. Location: Bohdan-Pertoske NPSRD of CBR and Bohdan and Hoverlyanske forestries of Rakhiv SFE. Area: 67,5 ha. Altitude range: 1300-1550 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-western. Mean slope gradient: 31°. Pure forests Picea abies. Protection status: biosphere reserve, protective forests.

15. Code in the database: РА.БГГИ.1.+РА.ГО.1. Location: Bilotysyanske and Hoveriyanske forestries of Rakhiv SFE. Area: 616,8 ha. Altitude range: 1100-1550 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-western. Mean slope gradient 28°. Forests of Picea abies with admixtures of Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba – 62,1 ha (10,1 %); pure forests of Picea abies -554,7 ha (89,9 %). Protection status: protective forests.

16. Code in the database: РА.БО.2. Location: Bohdan forestry of Rakhiv SFE. Area: 84.1 ha. Altitude range: 870-1300 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-eastern. Mean slope gradient 30°. Pure forests of Fagus sylvatica -36,2 ha (43,0 %); forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba – 47,9 ha (57 %). Protection status: protective forests.

17. Code in the database: РА.БО.З. Location: Bohdan forestry of Rakhiv SFE. Area: 149.1 ha. Altitude range: 1000-1300 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-eastern. Mean slope gradient 28°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba – 65,2 ha (43,7 %); pure forests of Picea abies – 89,3 ha (56,3 %). Protection status: protective forests.

18. Code in the database: РА.КВ.1.+РА.БО.4. Location: Kvasy and Bohdan forestries of Rakhiv SFE. Area: 692.1 ha. Altitude range: 900-1300 m a.s.l. Dominating slope exposition: south-western. Mean slope gradient: 30°. Forests of Fagus sylvatica with admixtures of Picea abies, Abies alba – 219,3 ha (31,7 %); pure forests of Fagus sylvatica – 472,8 ha (68,3 %). Protection status: protective forests.

Source: Hamor F., Dovhanych Ya., Pokynchereda V., Sukharyuk D., Bundzyak Yo., Berkela Yu., Voloshchuk M., Hodovanets В., Kabal M. Virgin forests of Transcarpathia. Inventory and management. – Rakhiv, 2008. – 86 p.

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