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GEOLOGICAL LANDMARKS OF UKRAINE, carpaty.net

1 Dovbush Cliffs 19 Gothic folds
2 Contact of Lower Devonian and Upper Jurassic rocks 20 Probiy Waterfall
3 Cross-section of sulphate rocks of Tyraska Suite in Oleshiv village 21 Yaremchanski Dovbush Cliffs
4 Chechva tuffs 22 Contact of flysch and molassa rocks of Boryslav-Pokutskiy Thrust
5 Phosphorite-bearing Lower-Upper Cretaceous sediments, stratotype of Nezvyska Suite 23 Rushorski waterfalls
6 Zabolotiv-Ustechkivska Depression 24 Pistynski conglomerate outcrop
7 Karst funnels 25 Cliff in the Tatariv village
8 Cross-section of Cretaceous, Middle Miocene and Pleistocene sediments in Strilche village 26 Lower Miocene olistostromes
9 Mud volcano in Starunya village 27 Silver waterfalls
10 Nadvimyanska Cliff 28 Kosiv waterfall and «Gouk beds»
11 Manyavskiy Waterfall 29 Kouty outcrop of Upper Cretaceous — Lower Paleogene flysch
12 Tsepiga Hill 30 Dovbush cliffs on Sokilskiy Ridge
13 Bukhtivets Waterfall 31 Sokiiska Cliff
14 Pasichnyanski Cliffs 32 Chorna Gora («Black Hill») Ridge
15 Thrust of Boryslav-Pokutskiy Nappe onto Sambirskiy Nappe 33 Outcrop of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks
16 Cross-section of Miocene rocks on Prut River and pericline closure of Dobrotivska anticline 34 Cliff of Triassic limestones
17 Zone of External Carpathian thrust onto Fore-Carpathian Trough 35 Contact of Paleozoic metamorphic schists and Triassic parti-colored rocks
18 Large fan folds and Dora flexure 36 Chechva River breakthrough valley

In geotectonic respect southwestern section of the Region covers the thrust-nappe units of the External Carpathians and internal part of the Fore-Carpathian Trough while the central section — the external part of the latter trough, and the north-eastern section — the margin of Eastern-European Platform.

Within the Region there are traced almost all major structures which comprise the External Carpathians — Marmaroshskiy Massif composed of mainly metamorphic schists and terrigenous-carbonate Paleozoic rocks; Rakhivskiy, Chornogorskiy thrusts, Krosnenska Zone, and Skyboviy Thrust that include deformed f lysch rocks of Cretaceous — Early Miocene age of about three thousand meters total thickness.

Internal section of the Fore-Carpathian Trough comprises two large individual thrust-nappe units — Boryslavsko-Pokutskiy and Sambirskiy Thrusts. The first one includes deep-seated anticline structures complicated by one over another thrusts. They are composed of Lower Cretaceous — Lower Miocene flysch rocks which are overlain by thick Lower Miocene molassa that contains essential amount of salt-bearing and olistostrome rocks. In the country between Lyuchka and Cheremosh rivers these deep-seated structures attain the surface forming low-height ridges. In the north-eastern direction the Boryslavsko-Pokutskiy nappe is over-thrusted onto the Sambirskiy Nappe, and sometimes it almost fully covers the latter. Sambirskiy Thrust mainly includes various-sized nappes (sub-thrusts) composed of Miocene molassa only that comprised essential amount of olistostrome and salt-bearing rocks. This thrust, in turn, along sufficient distance in northeastern direction is overth rusted onto the External section of the Trough — Bilche-Volytska Zone. This is actually the margin of Eastern-European Platform filled with thick Late Miocene molassa buried along the system of north-west strike normal faults.

The Platform basement is composed of mafic gneisses and granitoids of Archean — Early Proterozoic age. Sedimentary cover comprises Vendian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic sediments which form specific tectonic levels separated by basal horizons — Dnistrovska pericratonic monocline, Boyanetskiy trough, Stryiskiy Jurassic trough, Lvivska Cretaceous mold, and Cenozoic level composed of thin carbonate-terrigenous sequence which is almost horizontal-laying and overlain by the cover of sub-aqual (alluvial), sub-aerial (aeolian-delluvial, elluvial) and intermediate (delluvial-colluvial, delluvial-slided) rocks of Pliocene-Quaternary age.

Considerable portion of the Region encompasses Ukrainian Carpathians which high-, medium-, and low-mountain relief forms elongated ridges and mountain massifs separated by numerous water-streams of diverse parameters. These include Chyvchynski Mountains (with top 1766 m high Chyvchyn Mountain), Grynyava Mountain (1590 m Baba-Lyudova Mountain), Chorni Gory (2061 m Goverla Mountain — highest one in Ukrainian Carpathians), Gorgany (1818 m Syvulya Mountain), Pokutsko-Bukovynski Carpathians (1491 m). Glacial forms (circus, kars, carlings) are the impressive counterparts of the high-mountain relief. On the Dnister right side there is Fore-Carpathian lowland that includes Pokutska, Sloboda-Rungurska, Maydan sections; Voynylivska and Prylukvinska hills; Ivano-Frankivska, Kaluska, and Rozhnyativska wide-side shallow gullies where terrace-accumulative relief forms predominate. North-eastern part of the Region (Dnister left-side) coincides with the margin of Podilska Height (up to 430 m high) where plain denudation relief with erosion gully and karst form prevails.

Sourсe: Geological Landmarks of Ukraine: In 3 volumes/V.P. Bezvynniy, S.V. Biletski, O.B. Bobrovetal.; V.L. Kalinin, D.S. Gurskiy, I.V. Antakova, Eds. — K.: DIA, 2006. — Volume I.

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